The Greek Goddess Gaia
Gaia, Gaea, or Ge Gea was a titânide (or titanesa) naming for Earth, Mother Earth, and as a major element of a latent primordial potentiality almost absurd for generating.
According to Hesiod, in principle Chaos arises, and out of Chaos Gaia was born, out of Tartarus, and Eros (love), Erebus and Nyx (Night).
Gaia alone generates Uranus, Point and OREAS (mountains). When she had generated Uranus they equalled in their desire to have something that covered them up completely, and this was an eternal home which appeared "blessed" as Eternal Home for the Gods.
With Uranus Gaia begatted the 12 Titans : Ocean, Coeus Crio Hyperion and Iapetus, Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe Gold crowned and the beloved Tethys; finally born was Cronos, the youngest and most terrible of her children who hated the lust of their father.
After, Uranus and Gaia it was the Cyclopes who generated Hecatonchires (Giants Hundred Hands).
Uranus being able to predict the future, feared the power of children so big and powerful and returned them back into the womb of Gaia.
She, who was moaning with excruciating pain without being able to give birth, called her Titan Sons to help freeing their brethren and avenge his father.
It was Cronus only who accepted. Gaia then took her breast and made out of it the steel toothed sickle.
She gave it to Cronos and hid him so that when in the night Uranus came hedid not notice the presence of Cronos.
Uranus when descending in order to unite with his wife once again he was surprised by Cronos attacking and castrating him. Thus Heaven and Earth have been separated.
Cronus threw the testicles of Uranus into the sea but a few drops fell on earth impregnating her. Uranus' spilled blood on Gaia and Giants were born, the Erinyes, the Melíades, and Aphrodite.
After the fall of Uranus Cronus became King of the World and freed his brothers. But seeing how powerful they were he also was frightened of them and imprisoned them again.
Gaia, revolted by the act of tyranny and intolerance of her son, plotted a new vengeance.
Gaia Anselm Feuerbach (1875).
When Cronus married Rhea and took over the government of the entire universe, Uranus told him that one of his very own sons would dethrone him later.
He then proceeded to devour every newborn according to his father's advice.
But Gaia helped Rhea to save the child that would be Zeus. Rhea then, instead of giving her son to Kronos to devour him, gave him a stone, and hid her son in a cave.
Being a grown-up, Zeus declared war on his parent and the other Titans with the help of Gaia.
And for hundred years of raging war between them there was neither side to triumph.
It was Gaia then who talked with Zeus and promised that he would win this war and become king of the universe if he went down into Tartarus and freed the three Cyclopes and the three Hecatonchires.
Listening to the advice of Gaia, Zeus defeated Cronus with the help of the children freed by earth' advice and became the new ruler of the universe.
However, Zeus had to make an agreement with the Hecatonchires so they could watch him from the bottom of the Titans' Tartarus.
Gaia revolted about this a 3rd time and threw up all her weapons in order to overthrow Zeus.
At first, she gave birth to countless Androgynous Beings with four legs and four arms that were connected through the column ending with two heads and posessing besides male and female genitals. The Androgynous emerged from the ground in every corner and climbed Olympus with Intent to destroy Zeus. However the advice of Themis, he and the other Gods hit the Androgynous Beings'column thus splitting them exactly in two halves.
Once this was done, Zeus won.
On some other occasion, Gaia produced a plant which turned into food it could give immortality to the Giants. Still to grow the plant needed light.
Zeus knowing this ordered Helios, Selene, Eos and the stars so they did not ascend to heaven and were hidden in veils of Nix. He searched and found the plant which he destroyed afterwards.
Still Gaia incited the Giants to put the mountains on each other in an attempt to climb the sky and invade Olympus. But Zeus and the other gods won again.
As a last resort, Gaia sent her youngest and most horrendous son, Typhon, to battle against the gods and their allies. Yet again the gods joined against this terrible creature and after a terrible and bloody battle, they could overtake also the last child of Gaia and won the battle.
Eventually Gaia gave in and made an sgreement with Zeus never again to plot against his government. Thus, it was received as the Goddess Olympia.
Thus Gaia became the Goddess of the earth in ancient Greece. Her name was used to illustrate a scientific theory: that Earth behaves like a living being.
With the popularization of such concept Gaia today is almost a synonym for Earth (planet), or the nature of the planet in a feminine aspect: Mother Gaia.
The "Gaia Theory" was proposed by the English scientist and environmentalist James Lovelock in the 60s. Despite not being unanimous, the concept today already has gained some reasonable acceptance in the scientific community.
The theory entails that as the planet behaves like a living organism - for example - in the allocation of heat-not that actually be one.
The Gaia hypothesis, also known as biogeochemistry hypothesis is some controversial hypothesis in deep ecology which proposes that the biosphere and the physical Componenetes Earth (atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere) are closely integrated to form a complex interacting system that maintains the climate and biogeochemical preferably in homeostasis.
Originally proposed by British researcher James E. Lovelock hypothesized this as response of the Earth. It was renamed as suggested by his colleague, William Golding, as the Gaia hypothesis in reference to the supreme Greek Goddess of the Earth - Gaia.
The hypothesis is often described as the Earth as a single living organism. Lovelock and other researchers who support the idea now consider it as a scientific theory, not just a hypothesis, once she passes the test prediction.
The British scientist, along with the American biologist Lynn Margulis analyzed studies that compared Earth's atmosphere with other planets proposing that life on Earth is to create the conditions for its own survival and not the opposite according to what traditional theories suggest.
Viewed with distrust by the international scientific community, the "Gaia Theory" finds supporters among ecological groups, mystics and some researchers.
With the phenomenon of global warming and the climate crisis in the world the hypothesis has gained credibility among scientists.
Relationship of humans to the planet
The reactions of the planet to human actions may be understood as a self-regulatory response of this immense living organism "Gaia" who feels and reacts organically.
The carbon dioxide emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), deforestation of important biomes such as the Amazon rainforest, the concentration of wealth, consumerism and the maldistribution of land are capable to cause serious damage to the large living organism and other living beings including the human Mankind. Thismis why there is an increased greenhouse effect, the intensification of extreme weather, melting icecaps and the great mountains of eternal snow, acid rain, all these creating human misery and exclusion.
Despite of the difficulties in defining what is life in the scientific world this theory is a new way to understand the environment since it is known that human beings are part of the whole and that the planet is a self-regulating being...
Earth is displays interaction between the living and non-living matter. We must realize that we are part of a living organism that regulates itself and interacts with other beings.
The analogy of Sequoia clarifies much:there exists a kind of tree that reaches up to 115 meters high, and is composed of 97% non-living material.
Comparing it to the Planet Earth it may be noticed that the planet is composed of a large amount of non-living material with a thin layer of life (living beings). The great body of the planet has the ability to self-regulation the result of which is interaction of living and non-living beings and matter...
Individual organisms not only adapt to the physical environment but through their joint action in ecosystems, geochemical also adapt the environment according to their biological needs.
Therefore communities of organisms and their environment - their input and output - is developed together as ecosystems.
The Chemistry of the Atmosphere and its physical environment of the Earth are completely different from the conditions prevailing on any other planet in the solar system - a fact that led to "The Gaia Hypothesis" (support agencies, especially the microorganisms have evolved with the physical environment, forming a complex system of control maintaining the conditions favorable to life (the land-Lovelock 1979).
(Contra) Mary translating this article, referred to the article by EM = Effective Mikro-organism she sent me at the beginning of our Co-Op. And here it is:
The Western community traditionally observes ecological events through naturalistic bias introduced in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries where there is a clear segregation between the organic itself "natural" and the universe of human objects or world "artificial".
Moreover, there is in some initial moment some possibility of organic infrastructure in order to support the informational body .
Reviews of contemporary concepts and own scientific paradigms currently being researched rectify gaps in the emerging field of quantum physics, astronomy and biology, and cybernetics and philosophy.
New concepts dismantle linear thinking which are materialisticly and historically accumulated.
But this still dominates many scientific institutions including some environmental NGOs.
Observing through a bias complex as evidenced by the very traditional biological approach the informational ecosystem (which also exists in nature through language of color, odor, temperature, movement etc.).
It also finds support in human subjects extending the organic network conventionally known as natural to all matter derived from living organisms.
This is another fact that may lead to the hypothesis (this does not invalidate the ecological struggles, but complements) that technology and the urban environment, the machines and artificial life are natural consequences of the biological unfolding from inorganic matter and therefore are alive too.
This should generate a discussion in terms of ecological imbalance and not in terms of invasion and exclusion artificiality within nature. Morphological and functional similarities of urban forms are generally artificial echoes of nature.
Therefore, a teleological process establishing a path through the artificiality towards eternal naturalness thus including literacy information as a support of neurons and organ flow as transportation routes ripening and defense of the organism on a global scale and many functions of own individual organisms.
In proportion similar to Sequoia 99.9% of the mass of human society is "dead" but being part of a body constituted by organic processes and stages of growth closely linked to circadian rhythms.
This entire process resembles to the unfolding between unicellular organisms (individuals) and multicellular colonies and vice versa, individual (multicellular), as well as to an overall upward trend , remembering also fractal functions and anamorfismo mineral / organic.
Some well-known assumptions but also with some external metaphysical approaches to praxis centifica in their methods of inference claim that minerals are alive because some precious and semi-precious stones and many geological elements (see caving) partially behave as living beings , since they are born, grow, reproduce themselves and die.
The fact that in its incompleteness analysis of viruses accompanied to it including computer devices, since it is known that (the first) are inert and virtually only minerals, if not hosted, despite evolve.
Research in artificial intelligence and own routine of internet and computers to demonstrate ways "alive" (trojans, viruses, spyware, worms, backdoors, etc..) These also behave in epistemological terms like living beings and in a traditional way of getting slightly ironic names of living beings.
Source: Wikipedia, re-blogged from
Published by the curadora64 and translated by ContrastMary